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= <center>*Note the contents of this wiki are under active revision and may change often.*<br></center>  =
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'''Note the contents of this wiki are under active revision and may change often.'''
  
= Georeferencing<br>  =
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= Georeferencing =
  
As applied to natural history collections data, georeferencing is the process of determining geographic coordinates (typically latitude and longitude) from a textually described locality description. Measurements of uncertainty associated in the form of a radius from the determined point or a polygon encompassing the maximum possible extent of a locality description are usually included in the georeferencing process.<br>  
+
As applied to natural history collections data, georeferencing is the process of determining geographic coordinates (typically latitude and longitude) from a textually described locality description. Measurements of uncertainty associated in the form of a radius from the determined point or a polygon encompassing the maximum possible extent of a locality description are usually included in the georeferencing process.<br>
  
= <br>Geographic Concepts Related to Georeferencing<br>  =
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= Geographic Concepts Related to Georeferencing =
  
 
It is not uncommon for georeferencing to involve numerous resources from various sources using differing scale and geographic systems. Ensuring an accurate and reliable result in georeferencing requires a basic understanding of the following concepts.<br>  
 
It is not uncommon for georeferencing to involve numerous resources from various sources using differing scale and geographic systems. Ensuring an accurate and reliable result in georeferencing requires a basic understanding of the following concepts.<br>  
  
=== <blockquote>'''Geodetic datum'''</blockquote> ===
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=== Geodetic datum  ===
  
 
::A model of the earth used for geodetic calculations. A geodetic datum describes the size, shape, origin, and orientation of a coordinate system for mapping the surface of the earth.<br>
 
::A model of the earth used for geodetic calculations. A geodetic datum describes the size, shape, origin, and orientation of a coordinate system for mapping the surface of the earth.<br>
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::Click [http://www.colorado.edu/geography/gcraft/notes/datum/datum_f.html here] for further information<br>
 
::Click [http://www.colorado.edu/geography/gcraft/notes/datum/datum_f.html here] for further information<br>
  
=== <blockquote>'''Coordinate System'''<br></blockquote>  ===
+
=== Coordinate System ===
  
 
::A system used to denote direct or relative positions by coordinates; Examples of two-dimensional coordinate systems are <u>Latitude/Longitude</u> and <u>Universal Transverse Mercator (UTM)</u><br>
 
::A system used to denote direct or relative positions by coordinates; Examples of two-dimensional coordinate systems are <u>Latitude/Longitude</u> and <u>Universal Transverse Mercator (UTM)</u><br>
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::Click [http://www.colorado.edu/geography/gcraft/notes/coordsys/coordsys_f.html here ]for further information<br>
 
::Click [http://www.colorado.edu/geography/gcraft/notes/coordsys/coordsys_f.html here ]for further information<br>
  
=== <blockquote>'''Geographic Coordinate System'''<br></blockquote> ===
+
=== Geographic Coordinate System  ===
  
 
::The net or graticule of lines of latitude (parallels) numbered 0° to 90° north and south of the equator, and lines of longitude (meridians) numbered 0° to180° east and west of the international zero meridian of Greenwich, used to define locations on the Earth's surface (disregarding elevation) with the aid of angular measure (degrees, minutes and seconds of arc).<br>
 
::The net or graticule of lines of latitude (parallels) numbered 0° to 90° north and south of the equator, and lines of longitude (meridians) numbered 0° to180° east and west of the international zero meridian of Greenwich, used to define locations on the Earth's surface (disregarding elevation) with the aid of angular measure (degrees, minutes and seconds of arc).<br>
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::Click [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Geographic_coordinate_system here ]for further information<br>
 
::Click [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Geographic_coordinate_system here ]for further information<br>
  
=== <blockquote>'''Projection'''<br></blockquote>  ===
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=== Projection ===
  
 
::A projection is a representation of the earth's three-dimensional surface as a flat two-dimensional surface. This normally involves a mathematical model (of which there are many) that transforms the locations of features on the earth's surface to locations on a two- dimensional surface. Such representations distort one or more parameters of the earth's surface such as distance, area, shape, or direction. <br>
 
::A projection is a representation of the earth's three-dimensional surface as a flat two-dimensional surface. This normally involves a mathematical model (of which there are many) that transforms the locations of features on the earth's surface to locations on a two- dimensional surface. Such representations distort one or more parameters of the earth's surface such as distance, area, shape, or direction. <br>
  
::Click [http://egsc.usgs.gov/isb/pubs/MapProjections/projections.html here] for further information<br>
+
::Click [http://egsc.usgs.gov/isb//pubs/MapProjections/projections.html here] for further information<br>
  
= Georeference Practices<br> =
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= Georeference Best Practices  =
  
:Click [http://herpnet.org/herpnet/documents/biogeomancerguide.pdf here] for a ‘Guide to Best Practices for Georeferencing” - Chapman, A.D. and J. Wieczorek (eds). 2006<br>
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:[http://herpnet.org/herpnet/documents/biogeomancerguide.pdf Guide to Best Practices for Georeferencing] for a  - Chapman, A.D. and J. Wieczorek (eds). 2006
  
<br>
+
:[http://manisnet.org/GeoreferencingQuickReferenceGuide.pdf Georeferencing Quick Reference Guide] version 2012-10-08. John Wieczorek, David Bloom, Heather Constable, Janet Fang, Michelle Koo, Carol Spencer, Kristina Yamamoto
  
= Specialized Georeferencing Tools<br>  =
+
= Georeferencing Videos =
 +
::https://vimeo.com/album/2163673
  
=== <blockquote>[[Image:BioGeomancer Log.png|thumb|left|BioGeomancer Log.png]]<br></blockquote>  ===
+
::Videos have been made and posted on Vimeo that focus on skills needed and software useful for georeferencing locality data from natural history museum specimens. Some videos were captured during a workshop - in front of a live audience. Others were planned and produced to cover a specific georeferencing topic. Videos captured at workshops are helpful for workshop participants to review or share with others in order to talk about the content and plan their own georeferencing workshops. The Power Point presentations and materials used in the live presentations are available at tinyurl.com/idbttt1 or tinyurl.com/idbttt2. The scripted videos are designed for individuals to teach themselves the material - or point others to, who would like to master this material.
  
::The BioGeomancer Project is a worldwide collaboration of natural history and geospatial data experts. The primary goal of the project is to maximize the quality and quantity of biodiversity data that can be mapped in support of scientific research, planning, conservation, and management. The project promotes discussion, manages geospatial data and data standards, and develops software tools in support of this mission.
+
= Georeferencing Community Protocols and Workflows =
  
::To learn more about the BioGeomancer workbench click [https://sites.google.com/site/biogeomancerworkbench/home here] (Warning some portions of this site are down, including the Workbench)
+
# See also the earlier section on Georeferencing Best Practices.
 +
# [http://tinyurl.com/khkg5dy '''Georeferencing using the Arthropod Easy Capture Database system: A comprehensive guide'''], by Danielle Pace, Project Assistant, TTD-TCN.<br/>From the Tri-trophic TCN - This guide presents a comprehensive look at the best practices for the georeferencing process, solutions for common problems, Frequently Asked Questions, and sources for more information.<br/>'''Software''': GEOLocate, Arthropod Easy Capture, Google, Google Maps
 +
# [https://www.idigbio.org/sites/default/files/working-groups/gwg/GEOLocate_Symbiota_Asencio.docx '''Georeferencing Guide'''] by Shannon Asencio, Canadian Museum of Nature.<br/>From the Macrofungi Collection Consortium TCN<br/>'''Software''': GEOLocate, Symbiota
 +
# [https://www.idigbio.org//sites/default/files/working-groups/gwg/Georeferencing%20Blog_FINAL.docx '''Georeferencing Procedure Outline'''] by Michael Yost, Denver Botanic Gardens.<br/>Update from the Macrofungi Collection Consortium (MaCC)<br/>'''Software''': GEOLocate, Symbiota
 +
## Blog Post: [https://www.idigbio.org/content/georeferencing-guidelines-community-examples Georeferencing Guidelines - Community Examples], by Michael Yost, MaCC Project Assistant
 +
# [https://www.idigio.org/sites/default/files/working-groups/gwg/GeoreferencingBlogPolygons_FINAL-1.pdf Georeferencing: The Polygon Method (pdf)] [https://www.idigio.org/sites/default/files/working-groups/gwg/GeoreferencingBlogPolygons_FINAL-1.doc (doc version)] by Michael, Yost, Denver Botanic Gardens
 +
## Blog Post: [https://www.idigbio.org/content/georeferencing-polygon-method Georeferencing: The Polygon Method], by Michael Yost, MaCC Project Assistant
 +
# [http://www.idigbio.org/sites/default/files/working-groups/gwg/GoodBadLocalitiesV27Oct2015.doc MVZ and iDigBio GWG Guide for Recording Localities in Field Notes]<br/> This guide details best practices for what locality information to write down when collecting and observing in the field. It includes a section designed just-so to fit in your field notebooks. Happy Collecting, and you'll be even happier still, with robust locality information and great georeferences.
 +
# [https://www.idigbio.org/sites/default/files/working-groups/gwg/YPMIPLocality.docx '''A locality worksheet used in the Division of Invertebrate Paleontology at the Yale Peabody Museum''']
 +
# [http://epicc.berkeley.edu/wp-content/uploads/2015/11/UsingGeoLocateforCollaborativeGeoreferencing_2016.pdf '''A quick start guide to using the GEOLocate collaborative portal, complete with screenshots''']
  
=== <blockquote>[[Image:GeoLocate Logo.png|thumb|left|GeoLocate Logo.png]]</blockquote>  ===
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= Specialized Georeferencing Tools =
  
::The GEOLocate project is an effort to develop software and services for translating textual locality descriptions associated with biodiversity collections data into geographic coordinates. In addition to the automated processing of locality description, one of the goals of was to provide an interface by which users could georeference records [http://www.museum.tulane.edu/geolocate/web/WebGeoref.aspx one by one] or [http://www.museum.tulane.edu/geolocate/web/WebFileGeoref.aspx in batches] from files, visualize and correct calculated coordinates and determine polygonal error descriptions. <br>
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=== GEOLocate ===
 +
[[Image:GeoLocate Logo.png|thumb|left|]]
 +
::The GEOLocate project is an effort to develop software and services for translating textual locality descriptions associated with biodiversity collections data into geographic coordinates. In addition to the automated processing of locality descriptions, GEOLocate provides an interface by which users can georeference records [http://www.museum.tulane.edu/geolocate/web/WebGeoref.aspx one by one] or [http://www.museum.tulane.edu/geolocate/web/WebFileGeoref.aspx in batches] from files, visualize and correct calculated coordinates, and determine polygonal error descriptions. <br>
  
::In addition to manual and batch methods, GEOLocate also now includes a [http://www.museum.tulane.edu/geolocate/community/default.html Collaborative Georeferencing] client, a mechanism whereby groups of users can form communities to collaboratively georeference and verify a shared dataset. Verification and correction of the computer generated geographic coordinates is accomplished using the GEOLocate desktop and/or web application. GEOLocate allows users to login to their communities, retrieve and visualize results, make any necessary corrections, provide additional comments, define errors as polygons, and save the results back to the shared dataset. The verified results of georeferencing can then be downloaded via the portal’s data management interface for <br>re-import to the parent database.
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::GEOLocate also now includes a [http://www.museum.tulane.edu/geolocate/community/default.html Collaborative Georeferencing] client, a mechanism whereby groups of users can form communities to collaboratively georeference and verify a shared dataset. Verification and correction of the computer generated geographic coordinates is accomplished using the GEOLocate desktop and/or web application. GEOLocate allows users to login to their communities, retrieve and visualize results, make any necessary corrections, provide additional comments, define errors as polygons, and save the results back to the shared dataset. The verified results of georeferencing can then be downloaded via the portal’s data management interface for re-import to the parent database.
  
 
::Click [http://www.museum.tulane.edu/geolocate/default.html here] for further information
 
::Click [http://www.museum.tulane.edu/geolocate/default.html here] for further information
  
=== <blockquote>'''Georeferencing Calculator'''<br></blockquote>  ===
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=== Georeferencing Calculator ===
  
::The Georeferencing Calculator is a java applet created as a tool to aid in the georeferencing of descriptive localities such as those found in museum-based natural history collections. It was specifically designed for the Mammal Networked Information System ([http://manisnet.org/ MaNIS]) Project and has been adopted as well by [http://herpnet.org/ HerpNet] and [http://ornisnet.org/ ORNIS]. The application makes calculations using the methods described in the [http://manisnet.org/GeorefGuide.html Georeferencing Guidelines]<br>
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::The Georeferencing Calculator can be found [http://manisnet.org/gci2.html here]. It was created as a tool to aid in the georeferencing of descriptive localities such as those found in museum-based natural history collections. It was specifically designed for the Mammal Networked Information System ([http://manisnet.org/ MaNIS]) Project and has been adopted as well by [http://herpnet.org/ HerpNet] and [http://ornisnet.org/ ORNIS]. The application makes calculations using the methods described in the [http://manisnet.org/GeorefGuide.html Georeferencing Guidelines]<br>
  
= <br>Natural History Databases with Integrated Georeferencing Capabilities<br>  =
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=== BioGeomancer ===
 +
[[Image:BioGeomancer Log.png|thumb|left|]]
 +
::The BioGeomancer Project is a worldwide collaboration of natural history and geospatial data experts. The primary goal of the project is to maximize the quality and quantity of biodiversity data that can be mapped in support of scientific research, planning, conservation, and management. The project promotes discussion, manages geospatial data and data standards, and develops software tools in support of this mission.
  
=== <blockquote>[http://arctos.database.museum/home.cfm Arctos]<br><br></blockquote>  ===
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:: Some portions of this site are down, including the Workbench, but if you'd like to learn more about the BioGeomancer workbench click [https://sites.google.com/site/biogeomancerworkbench/home here]
  
=== <blockquote>[http://specifysoftware.org/ Specify]<br><br></blockquote>  ===
 
  
=== <blockquote>[http://symbiota.org/tiki/tiki-index.php Symbiota]<br><br></blockquote> ===
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= Natural History Databases with Integrated Georeferencing Capabilities =
  
= <br>Selected Online Resources &amp; Tools  =
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[[Image:Arctos_logo.gif|thumb|left|]] [http://arctos.database.museum/home.cfm Arctos]
 +
Arctos’ multidisciplinary collection management information system integrates access to diverse types of collections (botany, entomology, herpetology, mammalogy , ornithology,  paleontology, parasitology) and data, including specimen records, observations, tissues, endoparasites and ectoparasites, stomach contents, fieldnotes and other documents, and media such as images, audio recordings, and video.  Arctos provides solutions to managing and integrating collections data with object tracking (via barcodes or RFID tags), transactions (loans, borrows, accessions, permits), geospatial information (coordinates and descriptive data), agents (people and organizations), and usage (publications, projects, and citations).
 +
 
 +
 
 +
[[Image:Specify_logo.png|thumb|left|]] [http://specifysoftware.org/ Specify]
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<br>
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<br>
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<br>
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<br>
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<br>
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<br>
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[[File:copy-symbiotalogo_new.jpg|200px|thumb|left|]][http://symbiota.org/tiki/tiki-index.php Symbiota]
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<br>
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<br>
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<br>
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 +
= Selected Online Resources &amp; Tools  =
 
<center>'''*'''A more inclusive list can be found at [http://www.herpnet.org/Gazetteer/GeorefResources.htm herpnet]'''*'''</center>  
 
<center>'''*'''A more inclusive list can be found at [http://www.herpnet.org/Gazetteer/GeorefResources.htm herpnet]'''*'''</center>  
=== <blockquote>[http://www.google.com/earth/index.html Google Earth]<br></blockquote>  ===
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*[http://georeferencing.org georeferencing.org]
 +
::A comprehensive site covering the basics of georeferencing as well as providing useful links to resources and guidelines.
  
=== <blockquote><br>[http://manisnet.org/GeorefGuide.html MaNIS/HerpNet/ORNIS Georeferencing Guidelines]<br></blockquote>  ===
+
* [http://www.museum.tulane.edu/geolocate/web/WebGeoref.aspx GeoLocate]
  
=== <blockquote><br>[http://www.herpnet.org/herpnet/documents/georeffordummy.xls Georeferencing for Dummies]<br></blockquote>  ===
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*[http://www.google.com/earth/index.html Google Earth]
 +
 
 +
*[http://manisnet.org/GeorefGuide.html MaNIS/HerpNet/ORNIS Georeferencing Guidelines]
 +
 
 +
*[http://www.herpnet.org/herpnet/documents/georeffordummy.xls Georeferencing for Dummies]
  
 
::This document is a list of locality types based on Georeferencing guidelines (Chapman, A.D. and J. Wieczorek (eds). 2006), as well as providing what is considered the best for georeferencing and finding the extent and error for each type of locality.<br>
 
::This document is a list of locality types based on Georeferencing guidelines (Chapman, A.D. and J. Wieczorek (eds). 2006), as well as providing what is considered the best for georeferencing and finding the extent and error for each type of locality.<br>
  
=== <blockquote>[http://www.statoids.com/details.html Statoids ]<br></blockquote> ===
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*[http://www.statoids.com/details.html Statoids ]
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 +
::Provides geographic and administrative divisions, in addition to historical information related to many countries.
 +
 
 +
*[http://historicalmaps.arcgis.com/usgs/index.html USGS/ARCGIS Historical Maps]
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 +
::The USGS has put together an interactive site utilizing its historical topographic map collection. Users can simply type in a location and the site will guide you to a place.  Human and geologic activity change sites, borders, boundaries, landscapes and the power of this site is that it allows the user to explore a location by comparing maps created at different dates. The user can slide the transparency on maps to compare layers, or drag/drop to re-order maps.
 +
 
 +
*[http://historicalcharts.noaa.gov Historical Charts from NOAA]
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*[http://mrdata.usgs.gov/geology/state/ Geological maps by state - USGS]
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*[http://ngmdb.usgs.gov/ngmdb/ngmdb_home.html National Geologic Map Database - USGS]
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*[http://geonames.usgs.gov/pls/gnispublic USGS Geographic Names Service]
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 +
= FAQ =
  
::Provides geographic and administrative divisions, in addition to historical information related to many countries.<br>
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= Workshops =
  
= <br>FAQ<br> <br>  =
+
==== [https://www.idigbio.org/wiki/index.php/GWG_Train_the_Trainers_Workshop TTT1: The First iDigBio GWG Train the Trainers Workshop]: Expanding the Biodiversity Natural History Collections Georeferencing Community October 8 - 12, 2012 ====
  
= Workshops<br> =
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*[https://www.idigbio.org/wiki/index.php/File:TrainTrainersAttendeesListOct2012.pdf TTT1 Attendee List]
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*[https://www.idigbio.org/wiki/index.php/GWG_Train_the_Trainers_Workshop TTT1 Agenda]
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*[https://www.idigbio.org/wiki/index.php/GWG_Trainer%27s_Workshop_Summary_and_Logistics TTT1 Logistics]  
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*[https://www.idigbio.org/wiki/index.php/File:GeoreferencingTraintheTrainersPre-meetingSurvey.pdf TTT1 Pre Workshop Survey Questionnaire]
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*[https://www.idigbio.org/sites/default/files/workshop-presentations/geotrain/TTT1GWGPostWorkshopSummary.pdf TTT1 Post Workshop Survey Summary]
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*[http://tinyurl.com/iDigBioGeoTrainMap TTT1 Participant Map]
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*[https://www.idigbio.org/wiki/index.php/File:TrainTrainersPhotos.pdf Photos - Meet Workshop Attendees]
  
==== '''<blockquote>The First iDigBio GWG Train the Trainers Workshop: Expanding the Biodiversity Natural History Collections Georeferencing Community</blockquote> October 8 - 12, 2012 ''' ====
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==== [http://tinyurl.com/idbttt2 TTT2: The Second iDigBio GWG Train the Trainers Workshop] We're Expanding the Biodiversity Natural History Collections Georeferencing Community - Again, August 12 - 16, 2013 ====
 +
*[https://www.idigbio.org/sites/default/files/workshop-presentations/ttt2/TTT2participantlistfinal.docx TTT2 Attendee List]
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*[http://tinyurl.com/idbttt2 TTT2 Agenda]
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*[http://tinyurl.com/idbttt2log TTT2 Logistics]
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*[https://www.idigbio.org/sites/default/files/workshop-presentations/ttt2/TTT2PreSurveyWeb.docx TTT2 Pre Workshop Survey Questionnaire and Summary Results]
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*Post Workshop Survey Questionnaire
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*[https://mapsengine.google.com/map/edit?mid=z0y7heTF5kJk.kkGUZzdDmP5E TTT2 and TTT1 Map of Participants and Instructors]
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*TTT2 Participant Lightning Talks
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**Find out: Who are the participants, what specimen object locality data are they georeferencing, how many objects are there to georeference in their collections, what software is used, and who is going to be trained to do the georeferencing?
  
:::*For Details and Schedule click [https://www.idigbio.org/wiki/index.php/GWG_Train_the_Trainers_Workshop Train the Trainers Agenda] <br>
+
==== Need Georeferencers? Need Trainers? ====
:::*[https://www.idigbio.org/wiki/index.php/GWG_Trainer%27s_Workshop_Summary_and_Logistics GWG Trainer's Workshop Summary and Logistics] 
+
*[[TTT1TTT2|List of all TTT1 and TTT2 participants]]
:::*[https://www.idigbio.org/wiki/index.php/File:GeoreferencingTraintheTrainersPre-meetingSurvey.pdf Pre Workshop Survey Questionnaire]
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:::*[https://www.idigbio.org/wiki/index.php/File:TrainTrainersAttendeesListOct2012.pdf Attendee List]  
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:::*[http://tinyurl.com/iDigBioGeoTrainMap Train the Trainers Particpant Map]
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:::*[https://www.idigbio.org/wiki/index.php/File:TrainTrainersPhotos.pdf Photos - Meet Workshop Attendees]
+
  
<br>
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==== Workshops Done by TTT1 and TTT2 Participants ====
 +
The following trainees have gone on to do one or more workshops on their own. We look forward to more updates on everyone's progress to get this massive amount of data georeferenced!
 +
:Hannah Braeme, Liath Appleton, Una Farrell, Rita Velez, Margaret Landis, Jessica Utrup, Jennifer Zaspel, Ryan Moraski, Angelika Nelson, Dmitry Dimitriev, Dorothy Allard, Shannon Asencio, Stephen Gottschalk
  
<br>
 
  
How can you help? [https://www.idigbio.org/wiki/index.php?title=Georeferencing&action=watch Watch this page] to see the updates as they are posted by the community  
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How can you help? [https://www.idigbio.org/wiki/index.php?title=Georeferencing&action=watch Watch this page] to see the updates as they are posted by the community or [https://www.idigbio.org/wiki/index.php/IDigBio_Working_Groups#Georeferencing_Working_Group_.28GWG.29 join our working group]!
  
 
Follow the working group discussion and participate in the conversation at [https://www.idigbio.org/forums/georeferencing-working-group-gwg iDigBio.org]  
 
Follow the working group discussion and participate in the conversation at [https://www.idigbio.org/forums/georeferencing-working-group-gwg iDigBio.org]  
  
 
Make [https://www.idigbio.org/wiki/index.php?title=Georeferencing&action=edit Edits] to this page. You can assist with adding information that may be missing. Also, see what others are saying about [https://www.idigbio.org/wiki/index.php?title=Talk:Georeferencing edits] you and other have made.
 
Make [https://www.idigbio.org/wiki/index.php?title=Georeferencing&action=edit Edits] to this page. You can assist with adding information that may be missing. Also, see what others are saying about [https://www.idigbio.org/wiki/index.php?title=Talk:Georeferencing edits] you and other have made.

Latest revision as of 13:55, 22 February 2017

Note the contents of this wiki are under active revision and may change often.

Georeferencing

As applied to natural history collections data, georeferencing is the process of determining geographic coordinates (typically latitude and longitude) from a textually described locality description. Measurements of uncertainty associated in the form of a radius from the determined point or a polygon encompassing the maximum possible extent of a locality description are usually included in the georeferencing process.

Geographic Concepts Related to Georeferencing

It is not uncommon for georeferencing to involve numerous resources from various sources using differing scale and geographic systems. Ensuring an accurate and reliable result in georeferencing requires a basic understanding of the following concepts.

Geodetic datum

A model of the earth used for geodetic calculations. A geodetic datum describes the size, shape, origin, and orientation of a coordinate system for mapping the surface of the earth.
Click here for further information

Coordinate System

A system used to denote direct or relative positions by coordinates; Examples of two-dimensional coordinate systems are Latitude/Longitude and Universal Transverse Mercator (UTM)
Click here for further information

Geographic Coordinate System

The net or graticule of lines of latitude (parallels) numbered 0° to 90° north and south of the equator, and lines of longitude (meridians) numbered 0° to180° east and west of the international zero meridian of Greenwich, used to define locations on the Earth's surface (disregarding elevation) with the aid of angular measure (degrees, minutes and seconds of arc).
Click here for further information

Projection

A projection is a representation of the earth's three-dimensional surface as a flat two-dimensional surface. This normally involves a mathematical model (of which there are many) that transforms the locations of features on the earth's surface to locations on a two- dimensional surface. Such representations distort one or more parameters of the earth's surface such as distance, area, shape, or direction.
Click here for further information

Georeference Best Practices

Guide to Best Practices for Georeferencing for a - Chapman, A.D. and J. Wieczorek (eds). 2006
Georeferencing Quick Reference Guide version 2012-10-08. John Wieczorek, David Bloom, Heather Constable, Janet Fang, Michelle Koo, Carol Spencer, Kristina Yamamoto

Georeferencing Videos

https://vimeo.com/album/2163673
Videos have been made and posted on Vimeo that focus on skills needed and software useful for georeferencing locality data from natural history museum specimens. Some videos were captured during a workshop - in front of a live audience. Others were planned and produced to cover a specific georeferencing topic. Videos captured at workshops are helpful for workshop participants to review or share with others in order to talk about the content and plan their own georeferencing workshops. The Power Point presentations and materials used in the live presentations are available at tinyurl.com/idbttt1 or tinyurl.com/idbttt2. The scripted videos are designed for individuals to teach themselves the material - or point others to, who would like to master this material.

Georeferencing Community Protocols and Workflows

  1. See also the earlier section on Georeferencing Best Practices.
  2. Georeferencing using the Arthropod Easy Capture Database system: A comprehensive guide, by Danielle Pace, Project Assistant, TTD-TCN.
    From the Tri-trophic TCN - This guide presents a comprehensive look at the best practices for the georeferencing process, solutions for common problems, Frequently Asked Questions, and sources for more information.
    Software: GEOLocate, Arthropod Easy Capture, Google, Google Maps
  3. Georeferencing Guide by Shannon Asencio, Canadian Museum of Nature.
    From the Macrofungi Collection Consortium TCN
    Software: GEOLocate, Symbiota
  4. Georeferencing Procedure Outline by Michael Yost, Denver Botanic Gardens.
    Update from the Macrofungi Collection Consortium (MaCC)
    Software: GEOLocate, Symbiota
    1. Blog Post: Georeferencing Guidelines - Community Examples, by Michael Yost, MaCC Project Assistant
  5. Georeferencing: The Polygon Method (pdf) (doc version) by Michael, Yost, Denver Botanic Gardens
    1. Blog Post: Georeferencing: The Polygon Method, by Michael Yost, MaCC Project Assistant
  6. MVZ and iDigBio GWG Guide for Recording Localities in Field Notes
    This guide details best practices for what locality information to write down when collecting and observing in the field. It includes a section designed just-so to fit in your field notebooks. Happy Collecting, and you'll be even happier still, with robust locality information and great georeferences.
  7. A locality worksheet used in the Division of Invertebrate Paleontology at the Yale Peabody Museum
  8. A quick start guide to using the GEOLocate collaborative portal, complete with screenshots

Specialized Georeferencing Tools

GEOLocate

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The GEOLocate project is an effort to develop software and services for translating textual locality descriptions associated with biodiversity collections data into geographic coordinates. In addition to the automated processing of locality descriptions, GEOLocate provides an interface by which users can georeference records one by one or in batches from files, visualize and correct calculated coordinates, and determine polygonal error descriptions.
GEOLocate also now includes a Collaborative Georeferencing client, a mechanism whereby groups of users can form communities to collaboratively georeference and verify a shared dataset. Verification and correction of the computer generated geographic coordinates is accomplished using the GEOLocate desktop and/or web application. GEOLocate allows users to login to their communities, retrieve and visualize results, make any necessary corrections, provide additional comments, define errors as polygons, and save the results back to the shared dataset. The verified results of georeferencing can then be downloaded via the portal’s data management interface for re-import to the parent database.
Click here for further information

Georeferencing Calculator

The Georeferencing Calculator can be found here. It was created as a tool to aid in the georeferencing of descriptive localities such as those found in museum-based natural history collections. It was specifically designed for the Mammal Networked Information System (MaNIS) Project and has been adopted as well by HerpNet and ORNIS. The application makes calculations using the methods described in the Georeferencing Guidelines

BioGeomancer

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The BioGeomancer Project is a worldwide collaboration of natural history and geospatial data experts. The primary goal of the project is to maximize the quality and quantity of biodiversity data that can be mapped in support of scientific research, planning, conservation, and management. The project promotes discussion, manages geospatial data and data standards, and develops software tools in support of this mission.
Some portions of this site are down, including the Workbench, but if you'd like to learn more about the BioGeomancer workbench click here


Natural History Databases with Integrated Georeferencing Capabilities

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Arctos

Arctos’ multidisciplinary collection management information system integrates access to diverse types of collections (botany, entomology, herpetology, mammalogy , ornithology, paleontology, parasitology) and data, including specimen records, observations, tissues, endoparasites and ectoparasites, stomach contents, fieldnotes and other documents, and media such as images, audio recordings, and video. Arctos provides solutions to managing and integrating collections data with object tracking (via barcodes or RFID tags), transactions (loans, borrows, accessions, permits), geospatial information (coordinates and descriptive data), agents (people and organizations), and usage (publications, projects, and citations).


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Specify







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Symbiota




Selected Online Resources & Tools

*A more inclusive list can be found at herpnet*
A comprehensive site covering the basics of georeferencing as well as providing useful links to resources and guidelines.
This document is a list of locality types based on Georeferencing guidelines (Chapman, A.D. and J. Wieczorek (eds). 2006), as well as providing what is considered the best for georeferencing and finding the extent and error for each type of locality.
Provides geographic and administrative divisions, in addition to historical information related to many countries.
The USGS has put together an interactive site utilizing its historical topographic map collection. Users can simply type in a location and the site will guide you to a place. Human and geologic activity change sites, borders, boundaries, landscapes and the power of this site is that it allows the user to explore a location by comparing maps created at different dates. The user can slide the transparency on maps to compare layers, or drag/drop to re-order maps.

FAQ

Workshops

TTT1: The First iDigBio GWG Train the Trainers Workshop: Expanding the Biodiversity Natural History Collections Georeferencing Community October 8 - 12, 2012

TTT2: The Second iDigBio GWG Train the Trainers Workshop We're Expanding the Biodiversity Natural History Collections Georeferencing Community - Again, August 12 - 16, 2013

Need Georeferencers? Need Trainers?

Workshops Done by TTT1 and TTT2 Participants

The following trainees have gone on to do one or more workshops on their own. We look forward to more updates on everyone's progress to get this massive amount of data georeferenced!

Hannah Braeme, Liath Appleton, Una Farrell, Rita Velez, Margaret Landis, Jessica Utrup, Jennifer Zaspel, Ryan Moraski, Angelika Nelson, Dmitry Dimitriev, Dorothy Allard, Shannon Asencio, Stephen Gottschalk


How can you help? Watch this page to see the updates as they are posted by the community or join our working group!

Follow the working group discussion and participate in the conversation at iDigBio.org

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